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If you have a look at a lot of cycling related literature, time and again the answer given is what our American friends call KOPS, which is an abbrevation for Knee Over Pedal Spindle (I prefer axle to spindle, but never mind).

However, what is meant by this is not what KOPS says.

In this case KOPS is considered valid only in the absence of a contending force (point of view). I’ve never heard a convincing explanation, so if you have one, feel free to contribute. Every action on a bike starts with a signal from the CNS (brain and / or spine) that is in major part detemined by a constant flow of proprioceptive feedback from the peripheral nervous system. If the signals don’t reach the muscles, the muscles don’t work. Influential Czech sports physician Vladimir Janda (click on the link for the best overview I’ve read of Janda’s life) grouped external muscles into two categories, Postural Muscles and Phasic Muscles.

Translation: Heel Droppers don’t need to have their seats set back as far as their hypothetical, identical Toe Dipper twin (all other things being equal) At the other extreme of pedaling technique, Toe Dippers are tending to tip their weight forward with every pedal stroke and the more force applied to the pedals, the greater this tendency.What is meant is Tibial Tuberosity Over Pedal Axle.The tibial tuberosity is the bony bump below the patella (knee cap) to which the patella tendon attaches.What will determine ‘effective’ torso length is the ability of the rider to extend their spine and rotate their pelvis forward on the seat.For example a rider with measurably short torso may have good ability to extend (lengthen) their spine and flatten their lower back with pelvic rotation, meaning they are lengthening their ‘effective’ torso length.